Supplemental Instruction as a Tool for Students' Academic Performance in Higher Education
Oyinlola Omolara Adebola
The University of the Free State
Download Full-Text (PDF)


supplemental instruction
students' academic performance
first-year students
higher education

How to Cite

Adebola, O. (2021). Supplemental Instruction as a Tool for Students’ Academic Performance in Higher Education. Journal of Culture and Values in Education, 4(2), 42-51.


Supplemental instruction (SI), which can be referred to as academic support has been linked to the successful academic performance of university students both locally and internationally. This study explores the successful implementation of SI to encourage students toward academic performance in a South African university. Constructivism theory (CT) was adopted as the theoretical framework for the study while Participatory Research (PR) was the research design. A focused group interview was used to collect data because of its relevance and assumptions of academic support such as supplemental instruction. Two lecturers, two tutors, two tutees, and two SI personnel were selected for the study from a selected university. At the same time, thematic analysis was chosen to analyse the data generated. The findings showed that through the intervention of SI, first-year students' academic performance increased while the dropout rate has also reduced.

Download Full-Text (PDF)


Adebola, O.O. (2020). The use of supplemental instruction in university classrooms as a strategy to enhance the academic performance of first-year students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, (8)11B, 6289-6296.

Adebola, O.O., Tsotetsi, C.T & Omodan, B.I. (2020). Enhancing students' academic performance in the university system: The perspective of supplemental instruction. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 19(5), 217-230.

Bertolini, K. Stremmel, A. & Thorngren, J. (2016). Student achievement factors. Handbook, South Dakota University College of Education and Human Sciences Department of Teaching, Learning and Leadership. file:///C:/Users/bolab/Downloads/StudentAchievementFactorsBertoliniERIC.pdf/.

Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101,

Budiharso, T. & Tarman, B. (2020). Improving Quality Education through Better Working Conditions of Academic Institutes. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Studies, 7(1), 99-115.

Dana, J., Dawes, R., & Peterson., N. (2013). Belief in the unstructured interview: The persistence of an illusion. Judgment and Decision Making, 8(5), 512–520.

Dockery, D., J. (2012). School dropout indicators, trends, and interventions for school counsellors. Journal of School Counselling, 10(12), 4-23.

Double, K.S., McGrane, J.A., & Hopfenbeck, T.H. (2020). The impact of peer assessment on academic performance: A meta-analysis of (quasi) experimental studies. Educational Psychology Review, 2020(32), 482-509

Fluke, S., O'Connor, A., Ho, N., & Peterson, R. L. (2014). Academic support, strategy brief. Lincoln, NE: Student engagement project, University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the Nebraska Department of Education.

Goomas, D.T. (2014). The impact of supplemental instruction: Results from an urban community college. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 38(12), 1180-1184.

Hermann, Z. (2010). A tanárok hatása a tanulói kompetenciák fejlődésére. Zárótanulmány [The effect of teachers on the development of student competences. Final study]. Budapest: MTA Közgazdaságtudományi Intézet. Retrieved from

Holloway, I., & Todres, L. (2003). The status of method: flexibility, consistency and coherence. Qualitative research, 3(3), 345-357.

Jugder, N. 2016. Global connectedness in higher education: student voices on the value of cross cultural learning dialogue. Studies in Higher Education, 41 (11), 2011-2027.

Kapur, R. (2018). Factors influencing the students' academic performance in secondary schools in India. Factors influencing the students’ academic performance in secondary schools in India, 1, 25.

Kopish, M., & Marques, W. (2020). Leveraging technology to promote global citizenship in teacher education in the United States and Brazil. Research in Social Sciences and Technology, 5(1), 45-69.

Malm, J., Bryngfors, L., & Fredriksson, J. (2018). Impact of supplemental instruction on dropout and graduation rates: An example from 5-year engineering programs. Journal of Peer Learning, 11(1), 76-88.

Manalo, E., Marshall, J. & Fraser, C. (2010). Student learning support programmes that demonstrate tangible impact on retention, pass rates and completion. Available at

Mbah, B. A. (2015). Effects of Prior Knowledge of Topics and the Instructional Objectives on Students' Achievement in Literature-in-English. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(20), 31-34.

Moodley, P. & Singh, R. J. (2015). Addressing Student Dropout Rates at South African Universities. Alternation Special Edition, 17, 91 – 115.

Muray, M. (2014). Factors affecting graduation and student dropout rates at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. South African Journal of Science, 110(11), 1-6.

Narad, A., & Abdullah, B. (2016). Academic performance of senior secondary school students: Influence of parental encouragement and school environment. Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, 8(2), 12-19.

Omodan, B. I., & Ige, O. A. (2021). Sustaining collaborative learning among university students in the wake of COVID-19: The perspective of online community project. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 20(1), 356-379.

Rumberger, R.W. (2001). Why students drop out of school and what can be done. Available at

Saleem, M., Adeeb, M., Hafeez, S., Siddique, A.R. & Qasim, A. (2018). Academic support and academic achievement of university students: Mediating role of academic stress. Journal of Research and Reviews in Social Sciences Pakistan, 1, 72-81.

Skoglund, K., Wall, T.J. & Kiene, D. (2018). Impact of supplemental instruction participation on college freshman retention. Learning Assistance Review, 23(1), 115-135.

Sukrajh, V. (2018). The use of peer teaching to promote active learning amongst senior medical students. Doctoral dissertation, Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University.

Széll, K. (2013). Factors Determining Student Achievement. Hungarian Educational Research Journal, 3(3), 55–66. Available at

Wilmot, J., & Telang, N. K. (2017). Assessment of supplemental instruction programming on first-year academic success. In Conference proceedings of American Society of Engineering Education, Annual conference Columbus, Ohio.

Yasin, A. S., & Dzulkifli, M. A. (2010). The relationship between social support and psychological problems among students. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 1(3), 110-116.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (  


Download data is not yet available.