Lessons of Policing and Exclusion
Pedagogical Probabilities Present in Active Shooter Training
While active shooter training in schools is socially framed as a necessary response to the perception that our educational institutions are inherently dangerous to our children, this paper provides an alternate read that hopefully leads to critical conversations about such training and practices. It situates active shooter training squarely in the ever-expanding culture of fear that has prompted the usurping of various freedoms in exchange for greater levels of security through institutional and intrapersonal policing. In framing episodes of violence as expected and expanding the possibility of who perpetrates violence to include everyone, active shooter training is able to construct a rational justification for furthering hypervigilance and exhaustive surveillance. At the same time, it can be argued that such inclusive and boundless understandings of violence, especially when considering related pedagogical messages in the context of schooling and students, constructs a reality in which trust in others is a casualty, that surveillance is not simply institutional but instead an individual reality in which people normatively monitor one another, and in general, where difference is the impetus for the construction of metaphorical walls. And while these have been the responses to danger present in the commodified and individualized social world, it is important to question whether both the means and ends are justified. If democratic interaction is understood as requiring, among other things, attention to difference and dialogue, can democracy, let alone the expansion of democratic possibilities, exist in a reality in which these things are feared and avoided? Can schools, as sites where democratic interactions can be practiced, carry out this vital function if these needs are viewed in contention with or even subordinate to safety, as defined as furthering fear, policing, and exclusion?
ALICE Training Institute. (n.d.). ALICE basic certification training for schools. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
ALICE Training Institute. (2015). Case study: A lockdown only response to an active shooter in schools does not meet federal or state recommendations. Retrieved from https://www.alicetraining.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/ALICE-CS1-National-12.22.2015.pdf.
Allan, K. (2013). Contemporary Social and Sociological Theory: Visualizing Social Worlds. Washington D.C.: Sage Publications, Inc.
Barber, B. (1989). Public talk and civic action: Education for participation in a strong democracy. Social Education, 53(6), 355-370.
Bauman, Z. (1989). Modernity and the Holocaust. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Bauman, Z. (1990). Thinking Sociologically. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
Bauman, Z. (1995). Making and unmaking strangers. Thesis Eleven, 43(1), 1-16.
Bauman, Z. (2000). On writing: On writing sociology. Theory, Culture and Society, 17(1), 79-90.
Bauman, Z. (2004). Wasted Lives. Malden, MA: Polity.
Bauman, Z. (2005) Education in liquid modernity. The Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 27, 303-317.
Bauman, Z. (2005). Living in Utopia.
Bauman, Z. (2006). Liquid Fear. Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Bauman, Z. (2008). Does Ethics have a Chance in a World of Consumers?. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Beck, U. (2007). World at Risk. Malden, MA: Polity Press.
Bernstein, R. (2000). Creative democracy – The task still before us. American Journal of Theology and Philosophy, 21(3), 215-228.
Biesta, G. (2007). Education and the democratic person: Towards a political conception of democratic education. Teachers College Record, 109(3), 740-769.
Blankenau, J. & Leeper, M. (2003). Public school search policies and the “politics of sin”. The Policy Studies Jounral, 31(4), 565-584.
Bureau of Justice Assistance & International Association of Chiefs of Police. (n.d.). Guide for preventing and responding to school violence. Retrieved from https://www.alicetraining.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Guide-for-Preventing-and-Responding-to-School-Violence-2nd-Edition.pdf.
Couldry, N. (2010). Why voice matters: Culture and politics after neoliberalism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publication Ltd.
Dewey, J. (1907). The school and social progress. In. J. Dewey, The School and Society (19-44). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Giroux, H. (2003). Politics, war, and the disappearance of children. JAC, 23(1), 55-76.
Giroux, H. (2002). The politics of emergency versus public time: Terrorism and the culture of fear. Retrieved from http://www.culturemachine.net/index.php/cm/article/viewArticle/240/221.
Grossberg, L. (2005). Caught in the crossfire: Kids, politics, and America’s future. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
Marcuse, H. (1991). The one-dimensional man: Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Parker, W. (2010). Listening to strangers: Classroom discussion in democratic education. Teachers College Record, 112(11), 2815-2832.
Robbins, C. G. (2011). Tased and confused: From social exclusion to shock in the war on youth.
Robbins, C. G. (2012). Disposable youth / damaged democracy: Youth neoliberalism, and the promise of pedagogy in the work of Henry Grioux. Policy Futures in Education, 10(6), 627-641.
Robbins, C. G. (2013). The play of punishment in the “culture of cruelty”. Journal of Educational Controversy, 7(1), 1-12.
Sennett, R. (2012). Together: The rituals, pleasures and politics of cooperation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Healthy Students. (2013). Guide for developing high-quality emergency operations plans for institutions of higher education. Washington D.C. Retrieved from https://www.alicetraining.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Higher-Education-REMS.pdf.
Wolin, S. (1994). Fugitive democracy. Constellations, 1(1): 11-25.