Toward a Brillant Diversity
Chrystal S Johnson
Purdue University, United States
Harvey Hinton
Independent Scholar, United States
Download Full-Text (PDF)


culturally consonant character education
racial contract
white supermacy

How to Cite

Johnson, C., & Hinton, H. (2019). Toward a Brillant Diversity. Journal of Culture and Values in Education, 2(1), 56-70.


This essay puts forward a theoretical argument in support of culturally consonant character education. Character education supports the moral and civic development of youth in the United States (US), and it remains popular with all stakeholders. Majority group members often are unmindful of the significance and span of cultural distinctiveness of minorities. Rather, majority group members consciously or unconsciously advocate assimilation and adherence to universal virtues, chiefly in the field of character education. Cultural-historical conditions, as features of the moral development process, tone the agency and negotiation of character education. To that end, this essay employs Charles Mills’ The Racial Contract (1998) to not only account for the moralities of exclusion, but put forward a character education philosophy that accounts for cultural distinctiveness.

Download Full-Text (PDF)


Bair, S. (2009). The struggle for community and respectability: Black women school founders and the politics of character education in the early Twentieth Century. Theory and Research in Social Education , 37(4), 570-600.
Baerveldt, C., & Voestermans, P. (2005). Culture, emotion, and the normative structure of reality. Theory & Psychology, 15(4), 449-473.
Baldwin, J. (1998) Baldwin: Collected essays (New York, Penguin).
Benninga, J. (2013). Resolving ethical issues of school. Issues in Teacher Education, 22(1), 77-88.
Blum, L. (2002) I’m not a racist, but . . .”: The moral quandary of race (Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press).
Boykin, A. (1986) The triple quandary and the schooling of Afro-American children, in : U. Neisser (Ed.) The school achievement of minority children (Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum) pp. 57-92..
Bureau, U. S. C. (2013). American Factfinder fact sheet: Selected social characteristics in the United States, s.l.: s.n.
Clark, J.S. (2012). Countering the master narratives in US social studies: Nannie Helen Burroughs and new narratives in history education. In C.A. Woyshner and C.H. Bohan (eds) Histories of Social Studies and Race, 1870-2000.
Cross, W. (1991) Shades of black: Diversity in African-American identity (Philadelphia, Temple University Press).
Demuijnck, G. (2015). Universal values and virtues in management versus cross-cultural moral relativism: An educational strategy to clear the ground for business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 128, 817-835.
DuBois, W. E. B. (1903) The souls of Black folk ( Chicago,A.C. McClurg & Co.).
Dyer, R. (1997). White (New York, Routledge).
Duer, M., Parisi, A. & Valintis, M. (2002).Character education effectiveness. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED471100.
Ford, D.Y. (2010). Culturally responsive classrooms: Affirming culturally different gifted students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 33(1), 50-53.
Goodnenow, C. (1993). The pyschological sense of school membership among adolescents: Scale development and educational correlates. Pyschology in the Schools, 30(1), 79-80.
Green, A. D. (2004). In a different room: Toward an African American Woman's ethic of care and justice. In Snarey and V. Siddle-Walker (eds) Race-ing moral formation: African American perspectives on care and justice (55-72). New York: Teachers College Press,
Griffith, J. (1997). Student and parent perceptions of school social environment: Are they group based?. Elementary School Journal, 98(2), 135-149.
Hess, D.E. & McAvoy, P. (2014).The political classroom evidence and ethics in democratic education. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.
Hoffman, M. L. (2000) Empathy and moral development: implications for caring and justice New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hunter, J. (2000). The death of character: Moral education in an age without good or evil. New York: Basic Books.
Connell, J.P., Spencer, M.B., & Aber, J.L. (1994). Educational risk and resilience in African American youth: Context, self, action, and outcomes in school. Child Development, 65(2), 493-506.

Johnson, C.S. (2011). Addressing the moral agency of culturally specific care perspectives, Journal of Moral Development, 40(4), pp. 471-489.
Johnson, C.S. & Hinton, H. (2016). Creating culturally relevant community of learners and educators (CRCLE). In K. Gonzalez & R. Frumkin (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Effective Communication in Culturally Diverse Classrooms (pp. 40-65). New York: IGI-Global.
Johnson, C.S. & Hinton, H. (2018). A Morality of Inclusion. Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, 20(1&2), pp. 73-86.
Johnson, C.S. & Hinton, H. (in preparation). Step into My World. In C. Gist & T. Bristol (Eds.), AERA Handbook or Research on Teachers of Color.
Ladson-Billings, G., 2014. Culturally relevant pedagogy 2.0: a.k.a the remix. Harvard Educational Review, 84 (1), 74–84.
McPhail, M.L. (2004). A question of character: Re(-)signing the Racial Contract. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 7(3), 391-405.
Mehlig, A. J. M. &. L. M., 2002. Elementary school teachers' sense of efficacy for character education. The Journal of Educational Research, 96(1), 47-55.
Mills, C. (1997) The racial contract (New York, Cornell University Press).
Noddings, N. (2002) Educating moral people: a caring alternative to character education Williston, VT: Teachers College Press.
Noddings, N. (2003) Caring: a feminine approach to ethics and moral education (2nd Ed.) Berkeley: University of California Press.
Orbe, M.P. & Roberts, T.L. (2012). Co-cultural theorizing: Foundations, applications, and extensions. Howard Journal of Communications, 23(4), 293-311.
Opotow, S. V. (1990). Moral exclusion and injustice: an introduction, Journal of Social
Issues, 46(1), 1–20.
Osler, J & Hinton, H. (2015). Tri-squared qualitative and mixed methods analysis of perceptions of the effectiveness of the student athelete leadership academy (SALA): A character development and college preparatory program for young African American men. Journal on School Eduational Technology, pp. 7-22.
Puka, B. (1990) The liberation of caring: a different voice for Gilligan’s ‘different Voice’,
Hypatia 5(1), 58-82.
Raffel, J.A. (1998). Historical dictionary of school segregation and desegregation the American experience. Westport, CT: Greenword Press.
Sagy, S. & Dotan, N. (2001). Coping resources of maltreated children in the family: A salutogenic approach. Child Abuse and Neglect, 25(11), 1463-1480.
Schunk, D. H. (1995). Self-efficacy and education and instruction. In: Self efficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: Theory, research, and application. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 281-303.

Opotow, S. V. (Ed.) (1990).Moral exclusion and injustice: An introduction, Journal of Social Issues, 46, pp. 1-20.
Smedley, A. (2001) Social origins of the idea of race, in: C. Stokes, T. Melendez, & G. Rhodes-Redd (Eds.), Race in 21st century America (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press), pp. 1-24...
Thompson, A. (2004) Caring and colortalk: Childhood innocence in white and black, in: In V. Siddle-Walker & J.R. Snarey (Eds.), Race-ing moral formation: African American perspectives on care and justice (New York, Teachers College Press) pp. 23-37..
U.S. Department of Education (2015). Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics.
Viik, T. (2016). Understanding meaning formation processes in everyday life: An approach to cultural phenomenology. Humana.Mente Journal of Philosophical Studies, 31, 151-167.
Weinberg, M. (1977). A chance to learn: The history of race and education in the United States,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.


Download data is not yet available.