The Impact of demographic factors on pre-service teachers’ perception of Educational Research: Findings from a private university

  • Jacob Manu Department of Interdisciplinary Studies University of Education, Winneba-Mampong-Ghana
Keywords: Educational Research, Statistics anxiety, Demographic factors, Pre-service Teachers, Teaching experience


The current study sought to identify the effects of democratic factors on the perception of pre-service teachers (with diploma as their highest level of education) on the teaching and learning of the Educational Research course during the fall 2017 semester in one of the private universities in Ghana. With a survey research design, three hundred and twenty (320) pre-service teachers, who were enrolled in the fall 2017 sandwich programme, were randomly sampled to participate in the study. The findings revealed significant differences between male and female pre-service teachers perception of the teaching of research, relevance of research and their statistics anxiety. Also, the age independent variable indicated a significant difference on the statistics anxiety construct only whereas the other two constructs were not significant. There were significant correlations among age, years of teaching, and statistics anxiety. The implication of the study for practice is discussed.


Aguado, N. A. (2009). Teaching Research Methods: Learning by Doing. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 15(2), 251–260.
Alemanne, N. D. (2018). Teaching Research Methods in LIS, 16.
Baloğlu, M., Deniz, M. E., & Kesici, Ş. (2011). A descriptive study of individual and cross-cultural differences in statistics anxiety. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(4), 387–391.
Bourne, V. J. (2018). Exploring Statistics Anxiety: Contrasting Mathematical, Academic Performance and Trait Psychological Predictors. Psychology Teaching Review, 24(1), 35–43.
Boyle, E. A., MacArthur, E. W., Connolly, T. M., Hainey, T., Manea, M., Kärki, A., & van Rosmalen, P. (2014). A narrative literature review of games, animations and simulations to teach research methods and statistics. Computers & Education, 74, 1–14.
Burrill, G., & Biehler, R. (2011). Fundamental Statistical Ideas in the School Curriculum and in Training Teachers. In C. Batanero, G. Burrill, & C. Reading (Eds.), Teaching Statistics in School Mathematics-Challenges for Teaching and Teacher Education (Vol. 14, pp. 57–69). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
Canning, J., & Gallagher‐Brett, A. (2010). Building a bridge to pedagogic research: teaching social science research methods to humanities practitioners. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 2(2), 4–9.
Chew, K. H. P., & Dillon, D. B. (2014). Statistics Anxiety and the Big Five Personality Factors. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 112, 1177–1186.
Chu, H. (2015). Research methods in library and information science: A content analysis. Library & Information Science Research, 37(1), 36–41.
Ciarocco, N. J., Lewandowski, G. W., & Van Volkom, M. (2013). The Impact of a Multifaceted Approach to Teaching Research Methods on Students’ Attitudes. Teaching of Psychology, 40(1), 20–25.
Condron, D. J., Becker, J. H., & Bzhetaj, L. (2018). Sources of Students’ Anxiety in a Multidisciplinary Social Statistics Course. Teaching Sociology, 0092055X18780501.
Crowe, J., Ceresola, R., & Silva, T. (2014). Enhancing student learning of research methods through the use of undergraduate teaching assistants. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 39(6), 759–775.
Dinauer, L. (2018). 9. Beating anxiety and building community: best practices for teaching doctoral research methods and statistics online. Advancing Doctoral Leadership Education Through Technology, 137.
Dowker, A., Sarkar, A., & Looi, C. Y. (2016). Mathematics anxiety: what have we learned in 60 years? Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 508.
Faber, G., Drexler, H., Stappert, M. A., & Eichhorn, B. J. (2018). Measuring Education Science Students ‘Statistics Anxiety.
Förster, M., & Maur, A. (2015). Statistics anxiety and selfconcept of beginning students in the social sciences–a matter of gender and socio-cultural background. Zeitschrift Für Hochschulentwicklung (ZfHE), 10(4), 67–90.
Gray, C., Turner, R., Sutton, C., Petersen, C., Stevens, S., Swain, J., … Thackeray, D. (2015). Research methods teaching in vocational environments: developing critical engagement with knowledge? Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 67(3), 274–293.
Gresham, G. (2018). Preservice to Inservice: Does Mathematics Anxiety Change With Teaching Experience? Journal of Teacher Education, 69(1), 90–107.
Hartnett, J. L. (2013). Stats on the Cheap: Using Free and Inexpensive Internet Resources to Enhance the Teaching of Statistics and Research Methods. Teaching of Psychology, 40(1), 52–55.
Hill, F., Mammarella, I. C., Devine, A., Caviola, S., Passolunghi, M. C., & Sz\Hucs, D. (2016). Maths anxiety in primary and secondary school students: Gender differences, developmental changes and anxiety specificity. Learning and Individual Differences, 48, 45–53.
Hoffman, E. S. (2013). Beyond The Flipped Classroom: Redesigning A Research Methods Course For e3 Instruction. Contemporary Issues in Education Research (CIER), 7(1), 51.
Howard, C., & Brady, M. (2015). Teaching social research methods after the critical turn: challenges and benefits of a constructivist pedagogy. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(5), 511–525.
Huang, L. (2018). A Mixed Method Investigation of Social Science Graduate Students’ Statistics Anxiety Conditions Before and After the Introductory Statistics Course. International Journal of Higher Education, 7(3), 156.
Johnston, L. (2006). Software and Method: Reflections on Teaching and Using QSR NVivo in Doctoral Research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 9(5), 379–391.
Lavasani, M. G., Weisani, M., & Shariati, F. (2014). The Role of Achievement Goals, Academic Motivation in Statistics Anxiety: Testing a Causal Model. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 114, 933–938.
Markle, G. (2017). Factors Influencing Achievement in Undergraduate Social Science Research Methods Courses: A Mixed Methods Analysis. Teaching Sociology, 45(2), 105–115.
Najmi, A., Raza, S. A., & Qazi, W. (2018). Does statistics anxiety affect students’ performance in higher education? The role of students’ commitment, self-concept and adaptability. International Journal of Management in Education, 12(2), 95–113.
Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Daley, C. E. (1999). Perfectionism and statistics anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 26(6), 1089–1102.
Paechter, M., Macher, D., Martskvishvili, K., Wimmer, S., & Papousek, I. (2017). Mathematics Anxiety and Statistics Anxiety. Shared but Also Unshared Components and Antagonistic Contributions to Performance in Statistics. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1196.
Rodarte-Luna, B., & Sherry, A. (2008). Sex differences in the relation between statistics anxiety and cognitive/learning strategies. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(2), 327–344.
Slootmaeckers, K., Kerremans, B., & Adriaensen, J. (2014). Too afraid to learn: Attitudes towards statistics as a barrier to learning statistics and to acquiring quantitative skills. Politics, 34(2), 191–200.
Tonsing, K. N. (2018). Instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety in social work undergraduate students. Social Work Education, 37(2), 223–233.
Ulrich, A. (n.d.). Using Mathematical Research Methods to Solve a Problem in Music Theory Instruction, Specifically, the Teaching of Secondary Dominant Chords, 15.
Vasquez-Colina, M. D., Maslin-Ostrowski, P., & Baba, S. (n.d.). Tapping into Graduate Students’ Collaborative Technology Experience in a Research Methods Class: Insights on Teaching Research Methods in a Malaysian and American Setting, 13.
Walsh, J. J., & Ugumba-Agwunobi, G. (2002). Individual differences in statistics anxiety: the roles of perfectionism, procrastination and trait anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(2), 239–251.
Zare, H., Rastegar, A., & Hosseini, S. M. D. (2011). The relation among achievement goals and academic achievement in statistics: the mediating role of statistics anxiety and statistics self-efficacy. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1166–1172.
Zhukov, K. (2012). Teaching strategies and gender in higher education instrumental studios. International Journal of Music Education, 30(1), 32–45.
How to Cite
Manu, J., & Owusu-Ansah, C. (2019). The Impact of demographic factors on pre-service teachers’ perception of Educational Research: Findings from a private university. Journal of Culture and Values in Education, 2(2), 38-56.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Obs.: This plugin requires at least one statistics/report plugin to be enabled. If your statistics plugins provide more than one metric then please also select a main metric on the admin's site settings page and/or on the journal manager's settings pages.